Thanks to Jenny Carr from Oxford City Council for photos 2,4,7.
Particulate matter PM2.5
A month ago, Particulart was in Wallingford, featuring in Oxfordshire Artweeks.
This weekend, there are going to be not one… not two… but yes OK two Particulart events in Oxford as part of Low Carbon Oxford Week, and they’re both brand new exhibitions and both FREE!!
…is happening from 11:00 am – 4:00 pm on Saturday 18th June in Bury Knowle Park, Headington. As the poster says…
Human activity, and resulting emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, are increasingly changing the Earth’s climate and our weather.
Come to Bury Knowle Park for a family trip out, and happen across a whole new way of seeing climate change! Explore the greenhouse and knit your own carbon dioxide molecule.
18th June is also World-Wide Knit in Public Day. Bring your knitting and other yarn-based activities, have a picnic, and join in.
Anyone who wants to volunteer a bit of time would be more than welcome. Waitrose next door are kindly providing volunteer refreshments. Please get in touch.
…is from 11:00 am – 4:00 pm on Sunday 19th June at Magdalen College School. And the blurb…
The scandal over Volkswagen’s cheating over exhaust emissions testing has disappeared from the news, but the scandal over exhaust fumes and poor air quality in our cities remains.
Air pollution as you’ve never seen it before! Children of all ages can make their own exhaust fumes!
“Exhausted” is also featuring alongside Test Drive the Future in association with Oxford Festival of the Arts, with the support of BMW North Oxford.
Carbon monoxide is colourless, odourless, and tasteless, but highly toxic. It is the most common cause of fatal air poisoning in many countries.
|Lifetime in atmosphere
|No single lifetime can be given
|Global Warming Potential over 100 years
|Estimated emissions in 2008
|Atmospheric concentration in September 2013
Nearly all of the carbon content in incinerated waste is emitted to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. Municipal solid waste contains approximately the same mass fraction of carbon as does carbon dioxide itself (27%), so incineration of 1 tonne of waste is estimated to produce approximately 1 tonne of carbon dioxide.
Carbon dioxide emitted by human activity is of course the main cause of global warming leading to climate change. Under the Climate Change Act 2008, the UK is committed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels by at least 80% by 2050. In 1990, emissions from energy consumption were 10.5 tonnes of carbon dioxide per capita, so the target is slightly over 2 tonnes per capita.
In 2011, UK emissions from energy consumption were 8 tonnes per capita, the reduction from 1990 largely due to the replacement of coal by gas in electricity generation. The Exeter Incinerator is designed to accept up to 60,000 tonnes per year of waste, from Exeter and the immediate surrounding area in Devon. With a population of about 120,000, that means 0.5 tonnes of carbon dioxide added to every person’s carbon budget. But suppose the Incinerator replaced some carbon emissions from other energy plant……
Incinerators have electricity generation efficiencies of 14-28%. The waste heat can be used in a district heating network, giving efficiencies higher than 80%. The Exeter Incinerator will initially provide electricity to the national grid, and has the potential to export heat but only if a district heating network is established on the Marsh Barton estate.
So the Incinerator will produce electricity at a substantially lower efficiency than the rest of the national grid, and displace lower carbon alternatives.
Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are subject to the European Waste Incineration Directive, which puts strict limits on emissions to air. But removal of nitric oxide by incinerators is only about 60% effective and the remainder may be converted to nitrogen dioxide to form smog and acid rain.
Nitrogen dioxide has a variety of health impacts, such as higher incidence of respiratory symptoms in children, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, heart disease in those over 65, and abnormally elevated immune and allergic responses. When nitrogen dioxide is combined with fine particulates and carcinogenic heavy metals (in particular cadmium), the effects on lung cancer are likely to be more potent.
Incinerators may emit fine particles, and the EU Waste Incineration Directive puts limits on emissions to air of heavy metals, dust, and total organic carbon, among other pollutants. Therefore, incinerators operate a filtration system to control particulate emissions.
PM10 is defined as the mass of particles of less than about 10 microns (or one-hundredth of a mm) in diameter per cubic metre of air. PM2.5 is the mass of particles of less than about 2.5 microns in diameter per cubic metre of air. PM10 and PM2.5 samples from around the world can vary substantially in their chemical composition and size distribution, and it is possible that associated metals and ultrafine particles are important. Yet international and national regulations are currently framed in terms of mass concentrations instead of, say, the chemical (metallic) composition, the number of particles and total surface area of particles per unit volume of air, or the capacity of particles to generate free radicals.
Long term exposure to particles affects the risk of mortality, especially from cardiovascular disease and from lung cancer. Short-term increases in concentrations cause increases in deaths from and hospital admissions for heart attacks and respiratory disease, and related symptoms.
See also the patterns for the atoms and the number and colours of atoms and bonds needed for each particle.
Pattern – joining two atoms of the same colour
Cast on 4 sts, leaving a 20 cm tail
Knit i-cord for 16 rows
Cast off i-cord, leaving a 20 cm tail
Pattern – joining two different colour atoms
Cast on 4 sts, leaving a 20 cm tail
Knit i-cord for 8 rows
Knit 1 stitch i-cord, join the second colour and knit the rest of the row
Knit i-cord for 7 rows
Cast off i-cord, leaving a 20 cm tail
Knot the tails of the two colours at the join.
Thread each tail in turn onto a needle, pass through the cord of the same colour, cut so ends stay inside.
Work the knot inside the cord, and the stitches so they even out.
Thread each 20cm tail onto a needle and sew the bond onto the atom.
Pass remaining tail through atom, cut so ends stay inside.
See also the patterns for the bonds between atoms and the number and colours of atoms and bonds needed for each particle.
Our prototypes were made with bog-standard acrylic wool, and the atoms stuffed with a slightly shredded half of a plastic charity collection bag. These are the sorts of materials that will be burnt in the Incinerator. But really, anything that is weatherproof will be suitable.
If you are new to knitting, some of the codes below may be a mystery. But the internet is full of
marvels such as tutorials and knitting videos. It’s how we learnt i-cord.
|knit into the front an back of the stitch
repeat stitches in between
knit two together
slip stitch, knit next stitch, pass slip stitch over the knitted stitch
26 stitches to 10cm
The atom will be approx 20 cm in circumference.
Cast on 12 sts
kfb into each st (24 sts)
*k1, kfb* across row (36 sts)
cast on 1 st, purl across row, cast on 1 st at end (38 sts)
continue in stocking stitch for 12 rows starting with a knit row
k2tog, *k1, skpo* (25 sts)
k2tog, *skpo* to last 3 sts, k1, k2tog (13 sts)
Cut yarn leaving a 20 cm tail.
Thread onto needle, thread through remaining stitches and pull tight.
Sew edges together, stuff atom, thread through casting on stitches and pull tight.
Knot tails together, thread onto needle and pass through atom, and cut so ends stay inside.